|GENERIC NAME :|
|BRAND NAMES :|
|Hycodan, Hycotuss, Hycomine, Hydrocet, Lorcet, Lortab, Tussend, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Vi-Q-Tuss, Zydone, Anexia , Allay, Bancap-HC, Tussionex, Hydromet, CoGesic, , Hy-Phen, Maxidone, Norco, Panacet, Dolacet
|STREET NAMES :|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION :|
|Hydrocodone is a semi synthetic narcotic analgesic (painkiller)
and antitussive (cough suppressant) that binds to the mu(?) opiate receptor. It is an opioid agonist. It is considered a central nervous system depressant. Examples of other opioid agonists include substances such as morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl, codeine, and oxycodone. It binds to the mu-opiate receptors in the central nervous system. Maximum serum levels in healthy individuals were achieved at 1.3 ± 0.3 hours and the half-life was determined to be 3.8 ± 0.3 hours. Hydrocodone exhibits a complex pattern of metabolism including O-demethylation, N-demethylation and 6-keto reduction to the corresponding 6-alpha- and 6-beta-hydroxymetabolites.
NOTE: This summary will focus solely on hydrocodone and will not include descriptions of all of the other medications combined with hydrocodone in the brand names listed above. For details on each brand-name medication please refer to other resources listed at the end of this article.
|INDICATIONS FOR USE :|
|Hydrocodone is usually combined in tablet or in liquid form with other medications for the treatment of pain or for cough suppression.
|ABUSE AND ADDICTIVE POTENTIAL :|
Use of hydrocodone poses a high risk for abuse or dependence. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of alcohol or substance dependence as this may predisposed to becoming addicted to this drug. A symptom that is easily detected with opiate use is pinpoint pupils (miosis). Psychological dependence may occur early in use of this medication, but physical dependence and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration over several weeks or months (requiring larger or more frequent dosages of hydrocodone to produce relief of pain or achieve a state of euphoria). When hydrocodone is abused, the individual is seeking the euphoric effect ("high"). Mild signs of withdrawal can occur in some individuals after using hydrocodone for several days consecutively. Addiction to this drug can occur, even if taken as prescribed, when used for several weeks or months consecutively. When taken for treatment of chronic pain for several weeks or months consecutively, tolerance and dependence often occur. Once an individual has become dependent on hydrocodone, a primary driving force to continue using hydrocodone (or substituting other opiate agonists) is to prevent the very unpleasant neurochemical and physical withdrawal syndrome associated with discontinuing this drug. Symptoms usually associated with withdrawal may include:
• Abdominal pain
• Muscle aches
• Joint pain
• Sleep problems (insomnia)
• Agitation, Restlessness
• Dilated pupils
• Goose bumps
• Runny nose
• Loss of appetite (anorexia)
• Rapid heart rate
• Elevated blood pressure
• Rapid breathing
• Eyes or nose watering
Note: the term "going cold turkey" comes from the gooseflesh that occurs during withdrawal that looks like the skin of a plucked turkey) Withdrawal of hydrocodone is best handled by a physician that is skilled at assisting patients with opiate detoxification. Medications are often necessary to help control symptoms of withdrawal.
|Acute overdose of hydrocodone can cause respiratory depression, extreme drowsiness, prolonged sleeping, stupor, coma, muscle flaccidity, cold/clammy skin, constricted pupils, slow heart rate (bradycardia), low blood pressure (hypotension), and death. When hydrocodone is used in combination with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants, the two drugs potentiate one another and can greatly enhance the risk for overdose. Because of the dangers associated with overdose, immediate medical attention should be sought.
|Any patient with a history of alcohol or substance dependence has a much higher risk for developing addiction to hydrocodone. If use of this medication is considered necessary for the management of pain in an individual with a history of alcoholism or drug addiction, the lowest dose of this medication that is sufficient to provide pain relief is warranted. It is also recommended that use of this medication in an addict be discontinued as soon as possible and pain management thereafter managed with non-addictive medications. Respiratory depression is one of the chief hazards from all opioid agonist medications. Caution should be exercised when prescribing this medication to individuals with impaired lung function or low blood pressure. There may be serious problems also with use of this medication an individual with a closed head injury. It can elevate Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and mask symptoms of closed head injury that could require immediate medical measures. The administration of hydrocodone, like all opioid analgesics, may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions. Physical dependence and tolerance are not unusual during chronic opioid therapy. Because the drug is primarily eliminated from the body through the kidneys, individuals with kidney (renal) impairment must be monitored closely because the concentration of hydrocodone in the bloodstream can be higher than in subjects with normal kidney function. Also, individuals with liver dysfunction show higher peak concentrations of hydrocodone and its metabolites compared with individuals with normal liver function.
|SIDE EFFECTS :|
|Side effects of hydrocodone use may include nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, and itching (pruritus). Adverse effects may include allergic reaction, irregular heartbeat, migraine, confusion, dry mouth, nervousness, tremor, rash, blurred vision, mental clouding, lethargy, mood changes, urinary retention, anxiety, fear, respiratory depression, and personality changes.
|FOR MORE INFORMATION :|
|*This is a condensed description of oxycodone. For more details check with your physician, pharmacist, or resources such as The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) or http://www.drugs.com.